change

 *change.txt* For Vim version 5.4. Last change: 1999 Jul 20 VIM REFERENCE MANUAL by Bram Moolenaar This file describes commands that delete or change text. In this context,
changing text means deleting the text and replacing it with other text using
one command. You can undo all of these commands. You can repeat the non-Ex
commands with the "." command. 1. Deleting text |deleting|
2. Delete and insert |delete-insert| 3. Simple changes |simple-change| *changing*
4. Complex changes |complex-change|
5. Copying and moving text      |copy-move|
6. Formatting text |formatting|
7. Indenting C programs |C-indenting| For inserting text see |insert.txt|. ============================================================================== 1. Deleting text *deleting* ["x]       or ** *x* *dl*
["x]x Delete [count] characters under and after the cursor [into register x] (not linewise). Does the same as "dl". See |:fixdel| if the  key does not do what you want. See |'whichwrap'| for deleting the  (join lines). {Vi does not support } *X* *dh*
["x]X Delete [count] characters before the cursor [into register x] (not linewise). Does the same as "dh". Also see |'whichwrap'|. *d*
["x]d{motion} Delete text that {motion} moves over [into register x]. See below for exceptions. *dd*
["x]dd Delete [count] lines [into register x] (linewise). *D*
["x]D Delete the characters under the cursor until the end of the line and [count]-1 more lines [into register x]; synonym for d$ (not linewise). {Visual}["x]x    or *v_x* *v_d*
{Visual}["x]d Delete the highlighted text [into register x] (for {Visual} see |Visual-mode|). {not in Vi} {Visual}["x]CTRL-H or *v_CTRL-H* *v_*
{Visual}["x]     When in Select mode: Delete the highlighted text [into register x]. {Visual}["x]X  or *v_X* *v_D* *v_b_D*
{Visual}["x]D Delete the highlighted lines [into register x] (for {Visual} see |Visual-mode|). In Visual block mode, "D" deletes the highlighted text plus all text until the end of the line. {not in Vi} *:d* *:delete*
:[range]d[elete] [x]    Delete [range] lines (default: current line) [into register x]. :[range]d[elete] [x] {count} Delete {count} lines, starting with [range] (default: current line |cmdline-ranges|) [into register x]. These commands delete text. You can repeat them with the "." command
(except ":d") and undo them. Use Visual mode to delete blocks of text. See
|registers| for an explanation of registers. An exception for the d{motion} command: If the motion is not linewise, the
start and end of the motion are not in the same line, and there are only
blanks before the start and after the end of the motion, the delete becomes
linewise. This means that the delete also removes the line of blanks that you
might expect to remain. Trying to delete an empty region of text (e.g., "d0" in the first column)
is an error when 'cpoptions' includes the 'E' flag. *J*
J Join [count] lines, with a minimum of two lines. Insert up to two spaces (see below). *v_J*
{Visual}J Join the highlighted lines, with a minimum of two lines. Insert up to two spaces (see below). {not in Vi} *gJ*
gJ Join [count] lines, with a minimum of two lines. Don't insert any spaces. {not in Vi} *v_gJ*
{Visual}gJ Join the highlighted lines, with a minimum of two lines. Don't insert any spaces. {not in Vi} *:j* *:join*
:[range]j[oin][!]       Join [range] lines. Same as "J", except with [!] the join does not insert or delete any spaces. If a [range] has equal start and end values, this command does nothing. The default behavior is to join the current line with the line below it. :[range]j[oin][!] {count} Join {count} lines, starting with [range] (default: current line |cmdline-ranges|). Same as "J", except with [!] the join does not insert or delete any spaces. These commands delete the  between lines. This has the effect of joining
multiple lines into one line. You can repeat these commands (except ":j") and
undo them. These commands, except "gJ", insert one space in place of the  unless
there is trailing white space or the next line starts with a ')'. These
commands delete any leading white space on the next line. If the 'joinspaces'
option is on, these commands insert two spaces after a '.', '!' or '?' (but if
'cpoptions' includes the 'j' flag, they insert two spaces only after a '.'). ============================================================================== 2. Delete and insert *delete-insert* *R*
R Enter Replace mode: Each character you type replaces an existing character, starting with the character under the cursor. Repeat the entered text [count]-1 times. See |Replace-mode| for more details. *gR*
gR Enter Virtual replace mode: Each character you type replaces existing characters in screen space. So a  may replace several characters at once. Repeat the entered text [count]-1 times. See |Virtual-replace-mode| for more details. *c*
["x]c{motion} Delete {motion} text [into register x] and start insert. When 'cpoptions' includes the 'E' flag and there is no text to delete (e.g., with "cTx" when the cursor is just after an 'x'), an error occurs and insert mode does not start (this is Vi compatible). When 'cpoptions' does not include the 'E' flag, the "c" command always starts insert mode, even if there is no text to delete. *cc*
["x]cc Delete [count] lines [into register x] and start insert (linewise). If 'autoindent' is on, preserve the indent of the first line. *C*
["x]C Delete from the cursor position to the end of the line and [count]-1 more lines [into register x], and start insert. Synonym for c$ (not linewise). *s*
["x]s Delete [count] characters [into register x] and start insert (s stands for Substitute). Synonym for "cl" (not linewise). *S*
["x]S Delete [count] lines [into register x] and start insert. Synonym for "cc" (linewise). {Visual}["x]c        or {Visual}["x]s   or *v_c* *v_r* *v_s*
{Visual}["x]r Delete the highlighted text [into register x] and start insert (for {Visual} see |Visual-mode|). {not in Vi} {Visual}["x]C      or {Visual}["x]S   or *v_C* *v_R* *v_S*
{Visual}["x]R Delete the highlighted lines [into register x] and start insert (for {Visual} see |Visual-mode|). {not in Vi} Notes:
- You can end Insert and Replace mode with .
- See the section "Insert and Replace mode" |mode-ins-repl| for the other special characters in these modes.
- The effect of [count] takes place after Vim exits Insert or Replace mode.
- When the 'cpoptions' option contains '$' and the change is within one line, Vim continues to show the text to be deleted and puts a '$' at the last deleted character. See |registers| for an explanation of registers. Replace mode is just like Insert mode, except that every character you enter
deletes one character. If you reach the end of a line, Vim appends any
further characters (just like Insert mode). In Replace mode, the backspace
key restores the original text (if there was any). (See section "Insert and
Replace mode" |mode-ins-repl|). *cw* *cW*
Special case: "cw" and "cW" work the same as "ce" and "cE" if the cursor is
on a non-blank. This is because Vim interprets "cw" as change-word, and a
word does not include the following white space. {Vi: "cw" when on a blank
followed by other blanks changes only the first blank; this is probably a
bug, because "dw" deletes all the blanks} *:c* *:change*
:{range}c[hange]        Replace lines of text with some different text. Type a line containing only "." to stop replacing. Without {range}, this command changes only the current line. ============================================================================== 3. Simple changes *simple-change* *r*
r{char} Replace the character under the cursor with {char}. If {char} is a  or , a line break replaces the character. To replace with a real , use CTRL-V . CTRL-V  replaces with a . {Vi: CTRL-V  still replaces with a line break, cannot replace something with a } If you give a [count], Vim replaces [count] characters with [count] {char}s. When {char} is a  or , however, Vim inserts only one : "5r" replaces five characters with a single line break. When {char} is a  or , Vim performs autoindenting. This works just like deleting the characters that are replaced and then doing "i". *gr*
gr{char} Replace the virtual characters under the cursor with {char}. This replaces in screen space, not file space. See |gR| and |Virtual-replace-mode| for more details. As with |r| a count may be given. *case* *locale* *$LANG*
The following commands change the case of letters. The currently active
locale is used. This depends on your system On Unix, setting the $LANG
environment variable can make a difference. For example, to enable changing
the case of letters with umlauts:
     setenv LANG de *~*
~ 'notildeop' option: Switch case of the character under the cursor and move the cursor to the right. If a [count] is given, do that many characters. {Vi: no count} ~{motion} 'tildeop' option: switch case of {motion} text. {Vi: tilde cannot be used as an operator} *g~*
g~{motion} Switch case of {motion} text. {not in Vi} g~g~ *g~g~* *g~~*
g~~ Switch case of current line. {not in Vi}. *v_~*
{Visual}~ Switch case of highlighted text (for {Visual} see |Visual-mode|). {not in Vi} *v_U*
{Visual}U Make highlighted text uppercase (for {Visual} see |Visual-mode|). {not in Vi} *gU* *uppercase*
gU{motion} Make {motion} text uppercase. {not in Vi} gUgU *gUgU* *gUU*
gUU Make current line uppercase. {not in Vi}. *v_u*
{Visual}u Make highlighted text lowercase (for {Visual} see |Visual-mode|). {not in Vi} *gu* *lowercase*
gu{motion} Make {motion} text lowercase. {not in Vi} gugu *gugu* *guu*
guu Make current line lowercase. {not in Vi}. *g?*
g?{motion} Rot13 encode {motion} text. {not in Vi} *v_g?*
{Visual}g? Rot13 encode the highlighted text (for {Visual} see |Visual-mode|). {not in Vi} g?g? *g?g?* *g??*
g?? Rot13 encode current line. {not in Vi}. Adding and subtracting  *CTRL-A*
CTRL-A Add [count] to the number at or after the cursor. {not in Vi} *CTRL-X*
CTRL-X Subtract [count] from the number at or after the cursor. {not in Vi} The CTRL-A and CTRL-X commands work for (signed) decimal numbers and
unsigned octal and hexadecimal numbers. This depends on the 'nrformats'
option.
- When 'nrformats' includes "hex", Vim assumes numbers starting with '0x' or '0X' are hexadecimal. The case of the rightmost letter in the number determines the case of the resulting hexadecimal number. If there is no letter in the current number, Vim uses the previously detected case.
- When 'nrformats' includes "octal", Vim considers numbers starting with a '0' to be octal. Other numbers are decimal and may have a preceding minus sign. If the cursor is on a number, the commands apply to that number; otherwise Vim uses the number to the right of the cursor. For numbers with leading zeros (including all octal and hexadecimal numbers),
Vim preserves the number of characters in the number when possible. CTRL-A on
"0077" results in "0100", CTRL-X on "0x100" results in "0x0ff". Note that
when 'nrformats' includes "octal", decimal numbers with leading zeros are
impossible because they are indistinguishable from octal numbers. The CTRL-A command is very useful in a macro. Example: Use the following
steps to make a numbered list. 1. Create the first list entry, make sure it starts with a number.
2. qa - start recording into buffer 'a'
3. Y - yank the entry
4. p - put a copy of the entry below the first one
5. CTRL-A - increment the number
6. q - stop recording
7. @a - repeat the yank, put and increment  times SHIFTING LINES LEFT OR RIGHT *shift-left-right* * Shift [count] lines one 'shiftwidth' rightwards. *v_>*
{Visual}[count]>     Shift the highlighted lines [count] 'shiftwidth' rightwards (for {Visual} see |Visual-mode|). {not in Vi} *:*
:[range]> Shift {count} [range] lines one 'shiftwidth' right. Repeat '>' for shifting multiple 'shiftwidth's. :[range]> {count} Shift {count} lines one 'shiftwidth' right, starting with [range] (default current line |cmdline-ranges|). Repeat '>' for shifting multiple 'shiftwidth's. The ">" and ">>" a line starting with "> ) >" is a comment. b     Blank (,  or ) required after {string}. f     Only the first line has the comment string. Do not repeat comment on the next line, but preserve indentation (e.g., a bullet-list). s  Start of three-piece comment m      Middle of a three-piece comment e   End of a three-piece comment l      Left adjust middle with start or end (default). Only recognized when used together with 's' or 'e'. r Right adjust middle with start or end. Only recognized when used together with 's' or 'e'. x  Allows three-piece comments to be ended by just typing the last character of the end-comment string as the first character on a new line, when the middle-comment string has already been inserted automatically. See below for more details. {digits} When together with 's' or 'e': add extra indent for the middle part. This can be used to left-align the middle part with the start or end and then add an offset. -{digits} Like {digits} but reduce the indent. This only works when there is some indent for the start or end part that can be removed. When a string has none of the 'f', 's', 'm' or 'e' flags, Vim assumes the
comment string repeats at the start of each line. The flags field may be
empty. Any blank space in the text before and after the {string} is part of the
{string}, so do not include leading or trailing blanks unless the blanks are a
required part of the comment string. When one comment leader is part of another, specify the part after the whole.
For example, to include both "-" and "->", use
     :set comments=f:->,f:- A three-piece comment must always be given as start,middle,end, with no other
parts in between. An example of a three-piece comment is
     sr:/*,mb:*,ex:*/
for C-comments. To avoid recognizing "*ptr" as a comment, the middle string
includes the 'b' flag. For three-piece comments, Vim checks the text after
the start and middle strings for the end string. If Vim finds the end string,
the comment does not continue on the next line. Three-piece comments must
have a middle string because otherwise Vim can't recognize the middle lines. Notice the use of the "x" flag in the above three-piece comment definition.
When you hit Return in a C-comment, Vim will insert the middle comment leader
for the new line, eg " * ". To close this comment you just have to type "/"
before typing anything else on the new line. This will replace the
middle-comment leader with the end-comment leader, leaving just " */". There
is no need to hit BackSpace first. Examples:
 "b:*"     Includes lines starting with "*", but not if the "*" is
 followed by a non-blank. This avoids a pointer dereference
 like "*str" to be recognized as a comment.
 "n:>"  Includes a line starting with ">", ">>", ">>>", etc.
 "fb:-"    Format a list that starts with "- ". By default, "b:#" is included. This means that a line that starts with
"#include" is not recognized as a comment line. But a line that starts with
"# define" is recognized. This is a compromize. Often the alignment can be changed from right alignment to a left alignment
with an additional space. For example, for Javadoc comments, this can be
used (insert a backslash before the space when using ":set"):
     s1:/*,mb:*,ex:*/
Note that an offset is included with start, so that the middle part is left
aligned with the start and then an offset of one character added. This makes
it possible to left align the start and middle for this construction:
 /**
 * comment
 */ {not available when compiled without the |+comments| feature} *fo-table*
You can use the 'formatoptions' option to influence how Vim formats text.
'formatoptions' is a string that can contain any of the letters below. The
default setting is "tcq". You can separate the option letters with commas for
readability. letter meaning when present in 'formatoptions'  t    Auto-wrap text using textwidth
c      Auto-wrap comments using textwidth, inserting the current comment leader automatically.
r      Automatically insert the current comment leader after hitting  in insert mode.
o   Automatically insert the current comment leader after hitting 'o' or 'O' in Normal mode.
q   Allow formatting of comments with "gq". Note that formatting will not change blank lines or lines containing only the comment leader. A new paragraph starts after such a line, or when the comment leader changes.
2       When formatting text, use the indent of the second line of a paragraph for the rest of the paragraph, instead of the indent of the first line. This supports paragraphs in which the first line has a different indent than the rest. Note that 'autoindent' must be set too.
v   Vi-compatible auto-wrapping in insert mode: Only break a line at a blank that you have entered during the current insert command. (Note: this is not 100% Vi compatible. Vi has some "unexpected features" or bugs in this area. It uses the screen column instead of the line column.)
b   Like 'v', but only auto-wrap if you enter a blank at or before the wrap margin. If the line was longer than 'textwidth' when you started the insert, or you do not enter a blank in the insert before reaching 'textwidth', Vim does not perform auto-wrapping.
l   Long lines are not broken in insert mode: When a line was longer than 'textwidth' when the insert command started, Vim does not automatically format it. With 't' and 'c' you can specify when Vim performs auto-wrapping:
value  action  
""    no automatic formatting (you can use "gq" for manual formatting)
"t"       automatic formatting of text, but not comments
"c"  automatic formatting for comments, but not text (good for C code)
"tc"  automatic formatting for text and comments Note that when 'textwidth' is 0, Vim does no formatting anyway (but does
insert comment leaders according to the 'comments' option). Note that when 'paste' is on, Vim does no formatting at all. Note that 'textwidth' can be non-zero even if Vim never performs auto-wrapping;
'textwidth' is still useful for formatting with "gq". If the 'comments' option includes "/*", "*" and/or "*/", then Vim has some
built in stuff to treat these types of comments a bit more cleverly.
Opening a new line before or after "/*" or "*/" (with 'r' or 'o' present in
'formatoptions') gives the correct start of the line automatically. The same
happens with formatting and auto-wrapping. Opening a line after a line
starting with "/*" or "*" and containing "*/", will cause no comment leader to
be inserted, and the indent of the new line is taken from the line containing
the start of the comment.
E.g.: /* * Your typical comment. */ The indent on this line is the same as the start of the above comment. All of this should be really cool, especially in conjunction with the new
:autocmd command to prepare different settings for different types of file. Some examples: for C code (only format comments):
     fo=croq for Mail/news       (format all, don't start comment with "o" command):
     fo=tcrq ============================================================================== 7. Indenting C programs *C-indenting* Vim has options for automatically indenting C program files. These options
affect only the indent and do not perform other formatting. For comment
formatting, see |format-comments|. Note that you can disable the |+smartindent| and |+cindent| features at
compile time. There are in fact three methods available for indentation:
'autoindent'        uses the indent from the previous line.
'smartindent'      is like 'autoindent' but also recognizes some C syntax to increase/reduce the indent where appropriate.
'cindent'      Works more cleverly than the other two and is configurable to different indenting styles.
The rest of this section describes the 'cindent' option. Note that 'cindent' indenting does not work for every code scenario. Vim
is not a C compiler: it does not recognize all syntax. These four options control C program indenting:
'cindent'      Enables Vim to perform C program indenting automatically.
'cinkeys'  Specifies which keys trigger reindenting in insert mode.
'cinoptions'        Sets your preferred indent style.
'cinwords'    Defines keywords that start an extra indent in the next line. If 'lisp' is not on and 'equalprg' is empty, the "=" operator indents using
Vim's built-in algorithm rather than calling an external program. See |autocommand| for how to set the 'cindent' option automatically for C code
files and reset it for others. *'cinkeys'* *'cink'*
The 'cinkeys' option is a string that controls Vim's indenting in response to
typing certain characters or commands in certain contexts. The default is
"0{,0},:,0#,!^F,o,O,e" which specifies that indenting occurs as follows: "0{"       if you type '{' as the first character in a line "0}"   if you type '}' as the first character in a line ":"       if you type ':' anywhere "0#"  if you type '#' as the first character in a line "!^F" if you type CTRL-F (which is not inserted) "o"   if you type a  anywhere or use the "o" command (not in insert mode!) "O"     if you use the "O" command (not in insert mode!) "e"        if you type the second 'e' for an "else" at the start of a line Characters that can precede each key:
'!'  When a '!' precedes the key, Vim will not insert the key but will instead reindent the current line. This allows you to define a command key for reindenting the current line. CTRL-F is the default key for this. Be careful if you define CTRL-I for this because CTRL-I is the ASCII code for .
'*'   When a '*' precedes the key, Vim will reindent the line before inserting the key. If 'cinkeys' contains "*", Vim reindents the current line before opening a new line.
'0'       When a zero precedes the key (but appears after '!' or '*') Vim will reindent the line only if the key is the first character you type in the line. When neither '!' nor '*' precedes the key, Vim reindents the line after you
type the key. So ';' sets the indentation of a line which includes the ';'. Special key names:
      Angle brackets mean spelled-out names of keys. For example: "", "" (see |key-notation|).
'^'       Letters preceded by a caret (^) are control characters. For example: "^F" is CTRL-F.
'o'       Reindent a line when you use the "o" command or when Vim opens a new line below the current one (e.g., when you type  in insert mode).
'O'       Reindent a line when you use the "O" command.
'e'       Reindent a line that starts with "else" when you type the second 'e'. If you really want to reindent when you type 'o', 'O', 'e', '0', '', '*'
or '!', use "", "", "", "", "", "" or "",
respectively, for those keys. For an emacs-style indent mode where lines aren't indented every time you
press Return but only if you press Tab, I suggest: :set cinkeys=0{,0},:,0#,!,!^F Note: If you change the current line's indentation manually, Vim ignores the
cindent settings for that line. This prevents vim from reindenting after you
have changed the indent by typing , , or  in the indent or
used CTRL-T or CTRL-D. *cinoptions-values*
The 'cinoptions' option sets how Vim performs indentation. In the list below,
"N" represents a number of your choice (the number can be negative). When
there is an 's' after the number, Vim multiplies the number by 'shiftwidth':
"1s" is 'shiftwidth', "2s" is two times 'shiftwidth', etc. You can use a
decimal point, too: "-0.5s" is minus half a 'shiftwidth'. The examples below
assume a 'shiftwidth' of 4. >N Amount added for "normal" indent. Used after a line that should increase the indent (lines starting with "if", an opening brace, etc.). (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=>2 cino=>2s if (cond) if (cond) if (cond) { { { foo; foo; foo; } } } eN Add N to the prevailing indent inside a set of braces if the opening brace at the End of the line (more precise: is not the first character in a line). This is useful if you want a different indent when the '{' is at the start of the line from when '{' is at the end of the line. (default 0). cino= cino=e2 cino=e-2 if (cond) { if (cond) { if (cond) { foo; foo; foo; } } } else else else { { { bar; bar; bar; } } } nN Add N to the prevailing indent for a statement after an "if", "while", etc., if it is Not inside a set of braces. This is useful if you want a different indent when there is no '{' before the statement from when there is a '{' before it. (default 0). cino= cino=n2 cino=n-2 if (cond) if (cond) if (cond) foo; foo; foo; else else else { { { bar; bar; bar; } } } fN Place the first opening brace of a function or other block in column N. This applies only for an opening brace that is not inside other braces and is at the start of the line. What comes after the brace is put relative to this brace. (default 0). cino= cino=f.5s cino=f1s func() func() func() { { { int foo; int foo; int foo; {N Place opening braces N characters from the prevailing indent. This applies only for opening braces that are inside other braces. (default 0). cino= cino={.5s cino={1s if (cond) if (cond) if (cond) { { { foo; foo; foo; }N Place closing braces N characters from the matching opening brace. (default 0). cino= cino={2,}-0.5s cino=}2 if (cond) if (cond) if (cond) { { { foo; foo; foo; } } } ^N Add N to the prevailing indent inside a set of braces if the opening brace is in column 0. This can specify a different indent for whole of a function (some may like to set it to a negative number). (default 0). cino= cino=^-2 cino=^-s func() func() func() { { { if (cond) if (cond) if (cond) { { { a = b; a = b; a = b; } } } } } } :N Place case labels N characters from the indent of the switch(). (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=:0 switch (x) switch(x) { { case 1: case 1: a = b; a = b; default: default: } } =N Place statements occurring after a case label N characters from the indent of the label. (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino==10 case 11: case 11: a = a + 1; a = a + 1; b = b + 1; gN Place C++ scope declarations N characters from the indent of the block they are in. (default 'shiftwidth'). A scope declaration can be "public:", "protected:" or "private:". cino= cino=g0 { { public: public: a = b; a = b; private: private: } } hN Place statements occurring after a C++ scope declaration N characters from the indent of the label. (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=h10 public: public: a = a + 1; a = a + 1; b = b + 1; pN Parameter declarations for K&R-style function declarations will be indented N characters from the margin. (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=p0 cino=p2s func(a, b) func(a, b) func(a, b) int a; int a; int a; char b; char b; char b; tN Indent a function return type declaration N characters from the margin. (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=t0 cino=t7 int int int func() func() func() +N Indent a continuation line (a line that spills onto the next) N additional characters. (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=+10 a = b + 9 * a = b + 9 * c; c; cN Indent comment lines after the comment opener, when there is no other text with which to align, N characters from the comment opener. (default 3). See also |format-comments|. cino= cino=c5 /* /* text. text. */ */ (N When in unclosed parentheses, indent N characters from the line with the unclosed parentheses. When N is 0 or the line starts with '(', line up with the unclosed parentheses. (default 'shiftwidth' * 2). cino= cino=(0 if (c1 && (c2 || if (c1 && (c2 || c3) c3)) foo; foo; if (c1 && if (c1 && (c2 || c3) (c2 || c3) { { uN Same as (N, but for one level deeper. (default 'shiftwidth'). cino= cino=u2 if (c123456789 if (c123456789 && (c22345 && (c22345 || c3)) || c3)) )N Vim searches for unclosed parentheses at most N lines away. This limits the time needed to search for parentheses. (default 20 lines). *N Vim searches for unclosed comments at most N lines away. This limits the time needed to search for the start of a comment. (default 30 lines). The defaults, spelled out in full, are: cinoptions=>s,e0,n0,f0,{0,}0,^0,:s,=s,ps,ts,c3,+s,(2s,us,)20,*30,gs,hs Vim puts a line in column 1 if:
- It starts with '#' (preprocessor directives), if 'cinkeys' contains '#'.
- It starts with a label (a keyword followed by ':', other than "case" and "default").
- Any combination of indentations causes the line to have less than 0 indentation. top - back to help