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 *gui_x11.txt* For Vim version 5.4. Last change: 1999 Jul 21 VIM REFERENCE MANUAL by Bram Moolenaar Vim's Graphical User Interface *gui-x11* *GUI-X11* 1. Starting the X11 GUI |gui-x11-start|
2. GUI Resources |gui-resources|
3. Shell Commands |gui-pty|
4. Various |gui-x11-various|
5. GTK version |gui-gtk|
6. Compiling |gui-x11-compiling| Other relevant documentation:
|gui.txt|        For generic items of the GUI. {Vi does not have any of these commands} ============================================================================== 1. Starting the X11 GUI *gui-x11-start* Then you can run the GUI version of Vim in either of these ways: gvim [options] [files...] vim -g [options] [files...] So if you call the executable "gvim", or make "gvim" a link to the executable,
then the GUI version will automatically be used. Additional characters may be
added after "gvim", for example "gvim-5". You may also start up the GUI from within the terminal version by using one of
these commands: :gui [+cmd] [-f|-b] [files...] *:gu* *:gui* :gvim [+cmd] [-f|-b] [files...] *:gv* *:gvim*
The "-f" option runs Vim in the foreground.
The "-b" option runs Vim in the background (this is the default). *gui-fork*
When the GUI is started, it does a fork() and exits the current process.
When gvim was started from a shell this makes the shell accept further
commands. If you don't want this (e.g. when using gvim for a mail program
that waits for gvim to exit), start gvim with "gvim -f", "vim -gf" or use
":gui -f". Don't use "vim -fg", because "-fg" specifies the foreground
color. When using "gvim -f" and then ":gui", Vim will run in the foreground. The
"-f" argument will be remembered. To force running Vim in the background use
":gui -b". If you want the GUI to run in the foreground always, include the 'f'
flag in 'guioptions'. |-f|. Note that if you are using GTK+ for the GUI interface, vim will not fork to
the background. This is to work around a problem in the GTK+ implementation.
This will probably changed again later! ============================================================================== 2. GUI Resources *gui-resources* If using the Motif or Athena version of the GUI (not for the GTK+ or Win32
version), a number of X resources are available. You should use Vim's class
"Vim" when setting these. They are as follows:  Resource name        Meaning  reverseVideo        Boolean: should reverse video be used? background Color of background. foreground Color of normal text. scrollBackground        Color of trough portion of scrollbars. scrollForeground Color of slider and arrow portions of scrollbars. menuBackground        Color of menu backgrounds. menuForeground       Color of menu foregrounds. font Name of font used for normal text. boldFont Name of font used for bold text. italicFont Name of font used for italic text. boldItalicFont       Name of font used for bold, italic text. geometry Initial geometry to use for gvim's window (default is same size as terminal that started it). scrollbarWidth     Thickness of scrollbars. menuHeight Height of the menu bar. borderWidth Thickness of border around text area. A special font for italic, bold, and italic-bold text will only be used if
the user has specified one via a resource. No attempt is made to guess what
fonts should be used for these based on the normal text font at the moment. Note that the colors can also be set with the ":highlight" command, using the
"Normal", "Menu" and "Scrollbar" groups. *font-sizes*
Note: All fonts must be of the same size!!! If you don't do this, text will
disappear or mess up the display. Vim does not check the font sizes. It's
the size in screen pixels that must be the same. Note that some fonts that
have the same point size don't have the same pixel size! Additionally, the
positioning of the fonts must be the same (ascent and descent). You can check
this with "xlsfonts -l {fontname}". If any of these things are also set with Vim commands, eg with
":set guifont=Screen15", then this will override the X resources (currently
'guifont' is the only option that is supported). Here is an example of what you might put in your ~/.Xdefaults file:        Vim*useSchemes: all
     Vim*sgiMode: true
     Vim*useEnhancedFSB: true
     Vim.foreground: Black
     Vim.background: Wheat
     Vim*fontList: 7x13 The first three of these are standard resources on Silicon Graphics machines
which make Motif applications look even better, highly recommended! The "Vim*fontList" is to set the menu font for Motif. Example:
     Vim*menuBar*fontList: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-10-*-*-*-*-*-*-*
With Athena:
     Vim*menuBar*SmeBSB*font: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-10-*-*-*-*-*-*-*
     Vim*menuBar*MenuButton*font: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-10-*-*-*-*-*-*-* Don't use "Vim*geometry" in the defaults. This will break the menus. Use
"Vim.geometry" instead. If you get an error message "Cannot allocate colormap entry for "gray60",
try adding this to your Vim resources (change the colors to your liking):    Vim*scrollBackground: Black
     Vim*scrollForeground: Blue The resources can also be set with arguments to vim:  argument meaning   *-gui* -display {display}     Run vim on {display} *-display* -iconic Start vim iconified *-iconic* -background {color} Use {color} for the background  *-background* -bg {color} idem *-bg* -foreground {color}      Use {color} for normal text     *-foreground* -fg {color} idem *-fg* -ul {color} idem *-ul* -font {font} Use {font} for normal text        *-font* -fn {font} idem *-fn* -boldfont {font}  Use {font} for bold text        *-boldfont* -italicfont {font} Use {font} for italic text      *-italicfont* -geometry {geom}   Use {geom} for initial geometry *-geometry* -geom {geom} idem *-geom* -borderwidth {width} Use a border width of {width}   *-borderwidth* -bw {width} idem *-bw* *-scrollbarwidth* -scrollbarwidth {width}     Use a scrollbar width of {width} -sw {width} idem *-sw* -menuheight {height}        Use a menu bar height of {height} *-menuheight* -mh {height} idem *-mh* -reverse Use reverse video *-reverse* -rv idem *-rv* +reverse Don't use reverse video *-+reverse* +rv idem *-+rv* -xrm {resource}      Set the specified resource      *-xrm* Note about reverse video: Vim checks that the result is actually a light text
on a dark background. The reason is that some X11 versions swap the colors,
and some don't. These two examples will both give yellow text on a blue
background: gvim -fg Yellow -bg Blue -reverse gvim -bg Yellow -fg Blue -reverse ============================================================================== 3. Shell Commands *gui-pty* WARNING: Executing an external command from the GUI will not always work.
"normal" commands like "ls", "grep" and "make" mostly work fine. Commands
that require an intelligent terminal like "less" and "ispell" won't work.
Some may even hang and need to be killed from another terminal. So be
careful! There are two ways to do the I/O with a shell command: Pipes and a pseudo-tty.
The default is to use a pseudo-tty. This should work best on most systems. Unfortunately, the implementation of the pseudo-tty is different on every Unix
system. And some systems require root permission. To avoid running into
problems with a pseudo-tty when you least expect it, test it when not editing
a file. Be prepared to "kill" the started command or Vim. Commands like
":r !cat" may hang! If using a pseudo-tty does not work for you, reset the 'guipty' option:   :set noguipty Using a pipe should work on any Unix system, but there are disadvantages:
- Some shell commands will notice that a pipe is being used and behave differently. E.g., ":!ls" will list the files in one column.
- The ":sh" command won't show a prompt, although it will sort of work.
- When using ":make" it's not possible to interrupt with a CTRL-C. Typehead while the external command is running is often lost. This happens
both with a pipe and a pseudo-tty. This is a known problem, but it seems it
can't be fixed (or at least, it's very difficult). *gui-pty-erase*
When your erase character is wrong for an external command, you should fix
this in your "~/.cshrc" file, or whatever file your shell uses for
initializations. For example, when you want to use backspace to delete
characters, but hitting backspaces produces "^H" instead, try adding this to
your "~/.cshrc":
     stty erase ^H
The ^H is a real CTRL-H, type it as CTRL-V CTRL-H. ============================================================================== 4. Various *gui-x11-various* *gui-x11-printing*
The "File/Print" menu simply sends the current buffer to "lpr". No options or
whatever. If you want something else, you can define your own print command.
For example:  :10amenu File.Print :w !lpr -Php3
 :10vmenu File.Print :w !lpr -Php3 *X11-icon*
Vim uses a black&white icon by default when compiled with Motif or Athena. A
colored Vim icon is included as $VIMRUNTIME/vim32x32.xpm. For GTK+, this is
the builtin icon used. Unfortunately, how you should install it depends on
your window manager. When you use this, remove the 'i' flag from
'guioptions', to remove the black&white icon:
 :set guioptions-=i If you use one of the fvwm* family of window managers simply add this line to
your .fvwm2rc configuration file:  Style "vim" Icon vim32x32.xpm Make sure the icon file's location is consistent with the window manager's
IconPath statement. Either modify the IconPath from within your .fvwm2rc or
drop the icon into one the pre-defined directories:  IconPath /usr/X11R6/include/X11/pixmaps:/usr/X11R6/include/X11/bitmaps For CDE "dtwm" (a derivative of Motif) add this line in the .Xdefaults:
 Dtwm*Vim*iconImage: /usr/local/share/vim/vim32x32.xpm For "mwm" (Motif window manager) the line would be:
 Mwm*Vim*iconImage: /usr/local/share/vim/vim32x32.xpm ============================================================================== 5. GTK version *gui-gtk* The GTK version of the GUI works a little bit different. GTK does _not_ obey many of the traditional X resource settings (e.g., stuff
like -bg, -fg, etc). The ones that are supported are:  command line argument resource name       meaning  -fn or -font .font font name for the text -geom or -geometry .geometry size of the gvim window -rv or -reverse *reverseVideo      white text on black background To set the font, see |'guifont'|. For GTK, there's also a menu option that
does this. Additionally, there are these command line arguments, which are handled by GTK
internally. Look in the GTK documentation for how they are used: --sync --gdk-debug --gdk-no-debug --no-xshm --xim-preedit --xim-status --gtk-debug --gtk-no-debug --g-fatal-warnings --gtk-module As for colors, vim's color settings (for syntax highlighting) is still
done the traditional vim way. See |:highlight| for more help. If you want to set the colors of remaining gui components (e.g., the
menubar, scrollbar, whatever), those are GTK specific settings and you
need to set those up in some sort of gtkrc file. you'll have to refer
to the GTK documentation, however little there is, on how to do this. *gtk-tooltip-colors*
Example, which sets the tooltip colors to black on light-yellow:     style "tooltips"
 bg[NORMAL] = "#ffffcc"
 fg[NORMAL] = "#000000"
     widget "gtk-tooltips*" style "tooltips" Write this in the file ~/.gtkrc and it will be used by GTK. Don't forget to
remove the ">" characters from the first column. ============================================================================== 6. Compiling *gui-x11-compiling* If using X11, Vim's Makefile will by default first try to find the necessary
GTK+ files on your system. If the GTK+ files cannot be found, then the Motif
files will be searched for. Finally, if this fails, the Athena files will be
searched for. If all three fail, the GUI will be disabled. For GTK+, Vim's configuration process requires that GTK+ be properly
installed. That is, the shell script 'gtk-config' must be in your PATH, and
you can already successful compile, build, and execute a GTK+ program. The
reason for this is because the compiler flags (CFLAGS) and link flags
(LDFLAGS) are obtained through the 'gtk-config' shell script. Otherwise, if you are using Motif or Athena, when you have the Motif or Athena
files in a directory where configure doesn't look, edit the Makefile to enter
the names of the directories. Search for "GUI_INC_LOC" for an example to set
the Motif directories, "CONF_OPT_X" for Athena. *gui-x11-gtk*
At the time of this writing, you may use either GTK+ version 1.0.6 or 1.2. It
is suggested that you use v1.2 since not all of Vim's GUI features are present
if using v1.0.6. For instance, there are no tearoff menus present in v1.0.6.
Using a version from GTK+'s CVS tree may or may not work, and is therefore not
supported and not recommended. Lastly, although GTK+ has supposedly been ported to the Win32 platform, this
has not been tested with Vim and is also unsupported. *gui-x11-motif*
For Motif, you need at least Motif version 1.2 and/or X11R5. Motif 2.0 and
X11R6 are OK. Motif 1.1 and X11R4 might work, no guarantee (there may be a
few problems, but you might make it compile and run with a bit of work, please
send me the patches if you do). The newest releases of Lesstif have been
reported to mostly work (e.g., tear-off menus don't work). *gui-x11-athena*
The Athena version uses the Xaw widget set by default. If you have the 3D
version, you might want to link with Xaw3d instead. This will make the
menus look a bit better. Edit the Makefile and look for "XAW_LIB". The
scrollbars will remain the same, because Vim has its own, which are already
3D (in fact, they look more like Motif). *gui-x11-misc*
In general, do not try to mix files from different GTK+, Motif, Athena and X11
versions. This will cause problems. For example, using header files for
X11R5 with a library for X11R6 probably doesn't work (although the linking
won't give an error message, Vim will crash later). top - back to help