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2.1 Where can I get the HOWTOs and other documentation?
Look in the following places, and on sites that mirror them. For a complete list of Linux FTP sites, « Where can I get Linux material by FTP? »
If you don’t have access to FTP, try the FTP-by-mail servers at < email@example.com>, < firstname.lastname@example.org> or < email@example.com.>.
A complete list of HOWTO’s and Mini-HOWTO’s is available in the file
HOWTO.INDEX in the
docs/HOWTO directory at the FTP sites, or on the Web at http://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX.html, but here is a (possibly incomplete) list:
AX25-HOWTO Access-HOWTO Assembly-HOWTO Benchmarking-HOWTO BootPrompt-HOWTO Bootdisk-HOWTO CD-Writing-HOWTO CDROM-HOWTO Chinese-HOWTO Commercial-HOWTO Consultants-HOWTO Cyrillic-HOWTO DNS-HOWTO DOS-to-Linux-HOWTO DOSEMU-HOWTO Danish-HOWTO Distribution-HOWTO ELF-HOWTO Emacspeak-HOWTO Ethernet-HOWTO Finnish-HOWTO Firewall-HOWTO Ftape-HOWTO GCC-HOWTO German-HOWTO HAM-HOWTO HOWTO-INDEX Hardware-HOWTO Hebrew-HOWTO IPX-HOWTO ISP-Hookup-HOWTO Installation-HOWTO Intranet-Server-HOWTO Italian-HOWTO Java-CGI-HOWTO Kernel-HOWTO Keyboard-and-Console-HOWTO MGR-HOWTO MILO-HOWTO Mail-HOWTO NET-3-HOWTO NFS-HOWTO NIS-HOWTO News-HOWTO Optical-Disk-HOWTO PCI-HOWTO PCMCIA-HOWTO PPP-HOWTO Pilot-HOWTO Polish-HOWTO Printing-HOWTO Printing-Usage-HOWTO RPM-HOWTO Reading-List-HOWTO SCSI-HOWTO SCSI-Programming-HOWTO SMB-HOWTO Serial-HOWTO Serial-Programming-HOWTO Shadow-Password-HOWTO Slovenian-HOWTO Sound-HOWTO Sound-Playing-HOWTO Spanish-HOWTO TeTeX-HOWTO Thai-HOWTO Tips-HOWTO UMSDOS-HOWTO UPS-HOWTO UUCP-HOWTO User-Group-HOWTO VAR-HOWTO VMS-to-Linux-HOWTO XFree86-HOWTO XFree86-Video-Timings-HOWTO 3-Button-Mouse
The following Mini-HOWTO’s are available from http://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/HOWTO/mini:
ADSM-Backup AI-Alife Advocacy Backup-With-MSDOS Battery-Powered Boca BogoMips Bridge Bridge+Firewall Clock Colour-ls Comeau-C++ DHCPd Dial-On-Demand Diald Dip+SLiRP+CSLIP Diskless Dynamic-IP-Hacks Ext2fs-Undeletion GTEK-BBS-550 HTML-Validation IO-Port-Programming IP-Alias IP-Masquerade IP-Subnetworking JE Jaz-Drive Kerneld Key-Setup LBX LILO Large-Disk Linux+DOS+Win95 Linux+DOS+Win95+OS2 Linux+NT-Loader Linux+OS2+DOS Linux+Win95 Loadlin+Win95 Locales MIDI+SB Mail-Queue Mail2News Man-Page Multiple-Disks-Layout Multiple-Ethernet NFS-Root NFS-Root-Client Netscape+Proxy Offline-Mailing Online-Support PLIP PPP-over-minicom Pager Partition Print2Win Process-Accounting Proxy-ARP Public-Web-Browser Qmail+MH Quota RCS Remote-Boot Remote-X-Apps SLIP+proxyARP SLIP-PPP-Emulator Sendmail+UUCP Software-Building Software-RAID Soundblaster-16 Soundblaster-AWE64 StarOffice Swap-Space Term-Firewall Tiny-News Token-Ring Upgrade VPN Virtual-wu-ftpd Visual-Bell Win95+Win+Linux Windows-Modem-Sharing WordPerfect X-Big-Cursor XFree86-XInside Xterm-Title Xterminal ZIP-Drive ZIP-Install
In addition, translations of the HOWTO’s are available from sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/translations and mirrors worldwide. Translations in the following languages are available:
French (fr) German (de) Italian (it) Japanese (jp) Polish (pl) Spanish (es) Swedish (sv) Turkish (tr)
The HOWTO’s are also on the Web, at the Linux Documentation Project’s home page, http://sunsite.unc./edu/LDP, and are posted monthly to the Usenet newsgroup
More of these documents are always in preparation. Please get in touch with Greg Hankins, < firstname.lastname@example.org>, the HOWTO coordinator, if you are interested in writing one. The file sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX contains guidelines for writing a HOWTO.
The Guide Series produced by the Linux Documentation Project is available from http://sunsite.unc.edu/LDP. Please read them if you are new to Unix and Linux. Here is a list of those available so far:
- The Linux Documentation Project Manifesto, by Matt Welsh.
- Installation and Getting Started Guide, by Matt Welsh.
- The Linux Kernel, by David Rusling.
- The Network Administrator’s Guide, by Olaf Kirch.
- The Linux Programmer’s Guide, by Sven Goldt, Sven van der Meer, Scott Burkett, and Matt Welsh.
- The Linux System Administrator’s Guide, Version 0.5, by Lars Wirzenius.
2.2 Where should I look on the World Wide Web for Linux stuff?
Greg Hankins, email@example.com, maintains the Linux Documentation Project Home Page, at http://sunsite.unc.edu/LDP.
This page refers to all the FAQs and HOWTOs, both those which are available in HTML (WWW) format, and those which aren’t.
2.3 What newsgroups are there for Linux?
There are ten international Usenet newsgroups devoted to Linux.
comp.os.linux.announce is the moderated announcements group; you should read this if you intend to use Linux. Submissions for that group should be emailed to < firstname.lastname@example.org>.
comp.os.linux.answers contains all the FAQs, HOWTOs and other important documentation. You should subscribe to this too.
Also worth reading are the other groups in the
comp.os.linux.* hierarchy — you may find that many common problems are too recent to find in this FAQ but are answered in the newsgroups. These groups are
comp.os.linux.setup comp.os.linux.hardware comp.os.linux.networking comp.os.linux.x comp.os.linux.development.apps comp.os.linux.development.system comp.os.linux.advocacy comp.os.linux.misc
Remember that since Linux is a Unix clone, most all of the material in
comp.windows.x.* groups will be relevant. Apart from hardware considerations, and some obscure or very technical low-level issues, you’ll find that these groups are the right place to start.
Please read « You still haven’t answered my question! » before posting, and make sure you post to the right newsgroup — see `Welcome to the
comp.os.linux.* hierarchy’ which is posted every two weeks to
comp.os.linux.answers, and other groups.
Crossposting between different
comp.os.linux.* groups is rarely a good idea.
There may well be Linux groups local to your institution or area — check there first.
comp.os.linux.help were superseded in a recent newsgroup reorganisation. You should no longer use them.
See also « I don’t have Usenet access. Where do I get information? »
Other regional and local newsgroups also exist — you may find the traffic more manageable there. The French Linux newsgroup is
fr.comp.os.linux. The German one is
de.comp.os.linux. In Australia, try
aus.computers.linux. In Croatia there is the moderated group
hr.comp.linux.m. In Italy,
2.4 How do I install Linux?
There are several pre-packaged releases of Linux available, including Debian, Red Hat and Slackware. Each contains the software you need to run Linux, ready to install and use. The exact details of which software is included and how to install them vary from release to release.
You should read the
Installation-HOWTO for more details on how to go about installing Slackware. Red Hat and Debian are both more recent and less buggy, and have more sophisticated installation schemes, but they are less widely used and don’t contain quite as wide a range of software.
All of those releases are available via anonymous FTP from various Linux archive sites. See « Where can I get Linux material by FTP? » There are also a large number of other releases which are distributed less globally, which suit special local and national requirements (for example, better internationalisation support).
2.5 Where can I get Linux material by FTP?
There are three main archive sites for Linux: The best place to get the Linux kernel is ftp.cs.helsinki.fi/pub/Linux_Kernel. Linus Torvalds uploads the most recent kernel versions to this site.
The Debian distribution is available at ftp.debian.org/pub/debian, and the Red Hat distribution at ftp.redhat.com.
The contents of these sites is mirrored (copied, usually approximately daily) by a number of other sites. Please use one close to you — that will be faster for you and easier on the network.
Not all of these mirror all of the other `source’ sites, and some have material not available on the `source’ sites.
2.6 I don’t have FTP access. Where do I get Linux?
The easiest thing is probably to find a friend with FTP access. If there is a Linux users group near you, they may be able to help.
If you have a reasonably good email connection you could try the FTP-by-mail servers at < email@example.com>, < firstname.lastname@example.org> or < email@example.com>.
Linux is also available via traditional mail on diskette, CD-ROM and tape. The file sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/Installation-HOWTO, and the file sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/distributions/Distribution-HOWTO contain information on these distributions.
2.7 I don’t have Usenet access. Where do I get information?
A digest of comp.os.linux.announce is available by mailing the word « subscribe » (without the quotes) as the body of a message to < mailto:linux-announce-REQUEST@news-digests.mit.edu>. You are strongly advised to subscribe to this list, as it carries important information and documentation about Linux.
Please remember to use the
*-request addresses for your subscription and unsubscription messages; mail to the other address is posted to the newsgroup!
2.8 What mailing lists are there?
The Linux developers now mainly use the Majordomo server at < firstname.lastname@example.org>. Send a message with the word « lists » (without the quotes) in the body to get a list of the lists there; add a line with the word « help » to get the standard Majordomo help file which has instructions for subscribing and unsubscribing.
Note that most of these lists are used by the developers of Linux to talk about technical issues and future developments. These are not intended for new users’ questions.
There is a
linux-newbie list where « no question is too stupid »; unfortunately it seems that few of the experienced users read that channel. It does have very low volume.
There used to be a multi-channel Linux mailing list server on
niksula.hut.fi. This shut down during the summer of 1995.
2.9 Are the newsgroups archived anywhere?
sunsite.unc.edu//pub/Linux/docs/linux-announce.archive contains archives of
comp.os.linux.announce. These are mirrored from src.doc.ic.ac.uk/usenet, which also archives
There is an « easy to access » archive of
comp.os.linux.announce on the World Wide Web at http://www.leo.org/archiv/linux/archiv/ann_index.html. It supports searching and browsing.
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