Linux Gazette MailBag LG #34

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envelope-1170117 Date: Sun, 04 Oct 1998 16:04:47 -0500
From: « Casey Bralla »,
Subject: Single IP Address & Many Servers. Possible?

This is for the « article wanted » section of the Linux Gazette. Thanks!

I have a single IP address for accessing the Internet. I have an Intranet with several old 486-class computers which all access the Internet via IP Masquerading. The single machine which is actually connected to the Internet (and does the masquerading) is not powerful enough to run a news server, mail server, HTTP server, etc. I would like to split these functions up among the cheap low-cost computers I have lying around. How can I force HTTP web pages to be serviced by the HTTP server even though it is not directly connected to the Internet with an IP address?

Example Diagram below:

207.123.456.789  (Single IP address to the Internet)
        486 DX/2-66   (IP Masquerading)
                486 DX-33  Mail Server
                K-5 133  HTTP Server
                486 DX-33 Leafnode News Server
                (Other local machines)

I want anyone on the Internet who accesses my web server by accessing 207.123.456.789 to be directed to the computer at on the Intranet. (obviously, the Intranet users have no problem accessing the correct machines since they just reference the local IP address. But how can I make the same functionality available to the rest of the known universe?)

Casey Bralla

envelope-1170117 Date: Wed, 7 Oct 1998 15:40:06 -0500
From: « John Watts »,
Subject: Missing network card

I’ve installed (from diskette) Debian 2.0 (hamm) on a system at work. The idea was to set it up as a file/print server for my department. Unfortunately, Linux doesn’t believe me when I tell it that there is a network card. Its the EtherExpress 16. I’ve tried reinstalling and autoprobing, no luck. I’ve tried different Linux distributions, no luck. HELP!!!!!!!!!!!!

John Watts

envelope-1170117 Date: Tue, 06 Oct 1998 21:36:12 PDT
From: « Jonathan Bryant »,
Subject: Linux Extra?

I’ve been trying to encourage my Dad to try Linux. He has showed interest, but was curious if there was a Linux counterpart to Extra! on Windoze. He does a lot of work on the mainframe and needs something that can provide a « 3270 terminal interface » for a « TSO session ». I wondered if there are any old school programmers out there who can recommend a piece of software which would suit his needs.

Jonathan Bryant

envelope-1170117 Date: Fri, 09 Oct 1998 08:45:50 -0400
From: « Brian M. Trapp »,
Subject: NumLock – On at startup?

Hi! I’ve been reading the Linux Gazette for almost a year now. NICE WORK!!! You’re a great resource.

Here’s my quick and probably easy question.. On reboot (yes, I do that occasionally, just to use Win95 and Quicken) Linux (Red Hat 5.1) defaults to starting up with Num Lock off. How can I get it to switch it on for me automatically? (This is a matter of pride – I made the mistake of telling my girlfriend how great and powerful the OS is, and then she has to discover the num lock quirk for me…)

Brian Trapp

envelope-1170117 Date: Fri, 9 Oct 1998 09:47:05 +0800
From: « ctc »,
Subject: Where to find S3 ViRGE GX2 card driver for Linux

I use S3 ViRGE GX2 video card in my computer, but I cannot run startx. Do you know where I can find drivers for this kind of card? Any information is greatly appreciated. Thanks.


envelope-1170117 Date: Sun, 11 Oct 1998 16:38:00 -0700
From: Ed Ewing,
Subject: article idea

An article regarding cable modems and security, multiple interfaces etc.


envelope-1170117 Date: Sun, 11 Oct 1998 10:47:09 +0200
From: « P.Plantinga »,
Subject: drivers savage Linux

Are there drivers for my savage for Red Hat 5.1 xwindows? If there are any, please let me know where to get them.


envelope-1170117 Date: Sat, 10 Oct 1998 04:23:56 -0400
From: Eduardo Herrmann Freitas,
Subject: Ensoniq Audio PCI Sound Card

I would like to know if it is possible to install an Ensoniq Audio PCI Sound Card on Linux…


envelope-1170117 Date: Mon, 12 Oct 1998 14:01:07 -0400
From: « Mann, Jennifer », Jennifer.Mann@GSC.GTE.Com
Subject: looking for information

Hi. I am looking for information about how Linux handles transactions and database support. Has the Linux Gazette published any articles pertaining to this topic? If so, I would like to know if and where I can find those articles on the web.

Thank you,
Jennifer Mann

envelope-1170117 Date: Thu, 15 Oct 1998 09:01:46 -0500
From: « Mark Shipp(Soefker) »,
Subject: Confused with ProComm scripting

I got to your web site through a search on Yahoo. I must say that your help is a very valuable resource.

The reason that I’m doing this search is because I’m looking for someone with experience with the Aspect scripting. Could you or someone that you know steer me in the right path?

What I’m trying to do is create a counter that transmits its value in order to open to different nodes on a network. Below it the part of the program that is giving me the problem. It works except for the fact that I have to use the « TERMMSG » command instead of a « TRANSMIT ». This won’t work because the « open 0,(value) » statement has to be transmitted across the LAN.

Thanks for your help and time,

proc main
integer unit
   while unit !=3D 3      ; This means "while unit does *not* equal 3".
      unit++            ; Increment the value of counter (add 1 to it)
   termmsg "open 0,%d" unit
   transmit "^M"
                        ;This is where I would add in my other 

pause (2)               
endwhile                ; When unit equals 3 proceed, else count unit 
and restart
                        ; This is where I would close the network

envelope-1170117 Date: Wed, 14 Oct 1998 15:29:49 +0000
From: « J luis Soler Cabezas »,
Subject: I need info

Hello, I have a TX pro II motherboard with an VGA onboard video chip. The problem is that Linux X86config X-Window subsystem doesn’t recognize this video, the fact is that Linux can’t access to Emulated video RAM.

I’m waiting for your news, and please, excuse my English.


envelope-1170117 Date: Mon, 19 Oct 1998 08:31:49 -0700
From: Ken Deboy,
Subject: Win95 peer-to-peer vs. Linux server running Samba

I’m wondering if anyone can tell me the advantages of a Linux machine running as a print server for a network of Win95 machines vs. just hang- ing the printer off one of the Win95 machines and setting them up in a peer-to-peer arrangement. You don’t have to convince me, because I _do_ run Samba as my print server, but what can I tell my friends to convince them, especially if they aren’t having too many problems with their Windoze machines? Thanks for any comments, but no flames…

Ken Deboy

envelope-1170117 Date: Sun, 18 Oct 1998 18:03:57 -0400
From: « Gregory Engel »,
Subject: How to add disk space to RH 5.1?

I am a new Linux user having installed Red Hat 5.1 last month. (So far so good) After installing several goodies and libraries like qt I find myself running out of disk space on my / directory. I have a Syquest EZ-flyer removeable disk drive that I didn’t use at all during the install.

My question is can I move some of the directories that defaulted to the root directory like /tmp/ and /var/ to this drive without a full re-installation, and if so, how. Also I really couldn’t figure out how to get the thing working during install. It is a SCSI drive that connects to the parallel port. Red Hat lists it as a supported drive but was of little help when I asked them for specific instructions.

If there is some other strategy I might use to gain disk space without a re-installation I would like to hear it. I’m still amazed I got the thing going in the first place. The partitioning makes me nervous.

Greg Engel

envelope-1170117 Date: Tue, 20 Oct 1998 19:50:58 -0700
From: Michael McDaniel,
Subject: imapd

I have found a lot of information about using clients with IMAP servers. I have found basically _nothing_ about how to actually make the imapd server on Linux do anything.

I can point NetScape Messenger at the localhost IMAP server and it (NS) dutifully says « no messages on server ». Ok, I know that; how do I get messages on it?

My Suggestion:

Provide an article about imapd – how to set up hosts.allow for security, how to configure to use it (I’m pretty sure this has to be done), how to set up user mailboxes, etc.

I would love to see an article like this. By the way, how can I be automatically notified when a new issue comes out? I thought I was receiving that information but maybe not – I haven’t seen any info about the new articles as they come out lately.

Michael McDaniel

envelope-1170117 Date: Mon, 26 Oct 1998 02:27:44 -0500
From: « Oblivion »,
Subject: Help, with Debian 2.0 install from CD-ROM not part of HDD card

I am having problems with Debian 2.0 to install the the important, extra, and/ or packages, which include the kernel source and patches. I have got a operating system, but it does not recognize the CD-ROM drive, thus I can not add or upgrade any program packages to the system. I have tried to move the CD-ROM drive to run off the HDD control but the system will not even do look at the BIOS to startup. I am including at the base of this message the system specs. of this machine.

        CPU:                    Cyrix 5x86 100MHz
        Hard Drives:            BigFoot 1.2 Gb
                                WD 4.0 Gb
        Floppy Drives:          3.5"
        Bus Type:               PCI
        Extra Drives:           TEAC  CD-55 tray ROM 4x
        Mouse and style:        Bus on COM1
        modem:                  on COM2
        Memory:         24 Megs
        Root Directory:         hdc7
        O/S on system:          Windows 95
        Kernal Version:         2.0.34
        Sound Card:             Drives CDROM - Sound Blaster Pro 16 compatible


envelope-1170117 Date: Thu, 29 Oct 1998 17:53:29 +0100
From: Thierry Durandy,
Subject: Tie with the penguin logo

Do you know if I can find a tie with the Linux penguin logo on it? I could be interested in buying one to wear it and to show my opinion with keeping the suit.


envelope-1170117 Date: Fri, 30 Oct 1998 17:00:16 EST
From: Ross,
Subject: Cirrus Logic is the pits

Help me, I have a huge computer science project to hand in on Monday 11:00 GMT and my university won’t let us use the UNIX boxes on the weekends. I have Linux but alas I have a Cirrus Logic 5446 PCI with 2MB and Xwindows can’t hack it–it corrupts the screen. My mate bought a new card to fix this problem. There must be a cheaper sollution, patch, new server, whatever.

Also any quick help on how to set up a PPP conncection would be apreaciated,

Cheers to anyone who can help.

A newly converted Linux user,

envelope-1170117 Date: Sun, 4 Oct 1998 22:39:09 +0200
From: A.R. (Tom) Peters,
Subject: Linux certification

I read your article in Linux Gazette 33 on a Linux Certification program with interest. However, I would like to point out (and I will not be the only one), that this issue was already raised by Phil Hughes in L.J. Nov.1997 p.10; since then, there has been a still-active discussion in Therefore, I am somewhat surprised to see this paper appear in Linux Gazette without reference to these discussions. Moreover, Robert Hart of Red Hat has been actively defining a RH certification program; see .

In principle, I sustain initiatives like these. I strongly disagree however, with Dan York’s stress on the benefits for conference centers and publishers. Although I don’t care if they make a lot of money out of it, I am very much afraid of the consequences: if something like this really catches on, only people who can afford the certification program will be taken seriously as Linux consultants or developers. Everyone else will be officially doomed to be an « amateur », disrespective of competence or contributions already made to the Linux movement. So I think we should NOT copy the expensive MSCE model, but keep Linux certification affordable.

Tom « thriving on chaos » Peters

envelope-1170117 Date: Sun, 4 Oct 1998 16:53:56 -0400
From: Dan York,
Subject: RE: Linux certification

Many thanks for the pointers… I was not aware of the discussion on the site and had, in fact, been quite unsuccessful in finding such discussions on the web. Thank you.

Thank you for pointing out Robert Hart’s site… yes, others have sent along that pointer as well. Maybe I missed it, but when I was going through Red Hat’s site, I didn’t see a link to his pages on certification. Thank you for sending the pointer… and I hope Red Hat and Caldera can unify their efforts. We’ll see.

As far as your comments on the pricing, I understand your concerns. The struggle is to keep it affordable while also making it objective (which I would do through exams). In truth, Microsoft’s MCSE program could cost only $600 (the price of the 6 exams), although in practice people spend much more for books and/or training classes.

Thanks for your feedback – and I look forward to whatever discussions evolve.


envelope-1170117 Date: Sat, 3 Oct 1998 16:56:14 +0200
From: « David Andreas Alderud »,
Subject: Reb0l

Just thought I’d mention something everybody needs to know… Reb0l is no longer beta and is available from Really nice, I’ve used Reb0l since late last year (On my Amiga though) and I’m really pleased, sure think it will run over every other script language.

Kind Regards,
Andreas Alderud.

envelope-1170117 Date: Fri, 2 Oct 1998 10:29:21 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: re: links between identical sections

Although I can’t speak for other areas of the Gazette, the Graphics Muse can be searched using the Graphics Muse Web site. I have all the back issues online there with topical headings for the main articles in each issue. This feature just went live (online) last night, so it’s brand new (which is why no one knew about it before :-).

Lire aussi...  Secure Programming for Linux and Unix HOWTO

Take a look at and click on the « Muse » button. That will do it for you.

Michael J. Hammel, The Graphics Muse

We’ve added those requested links to each of the regular columns now. Ellen Dahl did this good work for us. –Editor

envelope-1170117 Date: Fri, 2 Oct 1998 04:02:23 -0400
From: « Tim Gray »,
Subject: Linux easy/not easy/not ready/ready YIKES!

Ok, I’ve noticed one very strong theme in every message I have ever read about Linux and how it won’t be accepted as a desktop. Every message states in one way or another, « if they see a command prompt, they will panic ». I am appalled at how IT professionals view users as idiots and morons. I refuse to call myself an IT professional because I help my users and clients use their software and don’t « just fix it when they mess it up ». A user can learn the command prompt quickly, and it’s easier to teach than, « click on start,settings,controlpanel,system,bla bla bla bla…. » than, « just type setupmodem and press enter » or whatever command or script you may like. I have started to move all my clients to Linux starting with the servers, saving them time and money. And I have a CEO that logs in as root and adds and removes users at one location. Users are much smarter than everyone gives them credit for and a command prompt doesn’t affect them as if the devil just spoke from the speakers. If the IT departments around the world put 1/5 the effort into educating the users than complaining about them, then it would be a non-issue. As computer professionals, we are to keep things running and educate our users, not sit on the pillar looking down with the look of « what do you do to it now? »

As one last question, everyone says « I’ll use Linux when it has a standard GUI »… What is a standard GUI? Windows doesn’t have one, Linux is the closest thing to a standard GUI than anything else available.

Tim Gray

envelope-1170117 Date: Tue, 06 Oct 1998 06:56:51 -0400
From: Nathaniel Smith,
Subject: Information on Linux

I wrote you on Article Ideas and told you that I thought you should write an article on how to use Linux for us (click and go people, who are computer dummies), and you were kind enough to publish it. Before I wrote you, I had already ordered 4 books (apparently the wrong ones, and had received two, they started out, « I will assume you already have a full working knowledge of Unix commands). I have had several kind souls, who have taken their time and energy, to point me in a direction that I can help myself, and that is all anyone can ask. Some have even tried to go even further and tried to help me with a hard drive problem that I have. I would like to see someone try that with the Windows crowd, you would most likely come up with an empty mail box. I think that says a lot about the type of people that uses Linux and I just want to thank you and everyone who has tried to help me, for I will try to help myself before asking for anymore help. I think that I have enough to keep me busy learning for quite a while.

thank you

envelope-1170117 Date: Thu, 8 Oct 1998 18:44:33 -0400
From: keith,
Subject: suggestion for Linux security feature

I wonder if you can point me in the right direction to make a suggestion for a new « feature » of Linux which could further help to differentiate it in the marketplace, and which might really give it a LOT of exposure (good) in today’s security-conscious press…

The security of computer information has been in the press a lot lately, detectability of « deleted » files on people’s hard drives, « secret » files, cache files, cookies, etc. which are out of the purview of the typical (and maybe even the advanced!) user. People either think they’ve deleted things which they haven’t really expunged, or their files are infiltrated, perhaps by a child (accidentally, of course!).

It seems to me quite possible to structure an OS like UNIX (and Linux in particular, since it is under development by so many gifted people) in such a way that all such files are created in a directory under the current user’s ownership, in a knowable and findable place, so that:

A. only that user could access their own cache, cookies, pointer files, etc. I do not know how deleted files could be safeguarded in this way, unless it is simply to encrypt everything. Hmmm.;

B. these files – the whole lot of them – could be scrubbed, wiped, obliterated (that’s why it’s important for them to be in a known and findable place) by their owner, without impairing the function of the applications or the system, and without disturbing similar such files for other users.

C. it would be nice too if there were a way to prevent the copying of certain files, and that would include copying by backup programs (for example, I’m a Mac user and we use Retrospect to back up some of our Macs; there’s a feature to suppress the backing up of a particular directory by having a special character (a « bullet », or optn-8) at the beginning or end of the directory name.) But if this could be an OS-level feature, it would be stronger.

If I’m user X, and I want to get rid of my computer, or get rid of everything that’s mine on the computer, I should just be able to delete all of my data files (and burn them or wipe them or otherwise overwrite that area of the disk), which I can surely do today. But in addition, I should know where to go to do the same thing with whatever system level files might be out there, currently unbeknownst to me, and be able to expunge them also, without affecting anything for anyone else.

Who would work on such a thing as this? Who would I suggest this to? Of course, it’s my idea. (c) Keith Gardner 1998. 🙂 But if something like this could be set up, wouldn’t it go a long way in the press, in corporate and government buying mind set, etc.?

I’m writing this very quickly, the idea really just came to me while reading the NY Times this morning with an article (in Circuits, 10/8/98) about computer security, and I am on my way out the door. I don’t have time to give it much polish. But I hope the ideas are clear enough. Let me know what you think.

Keith Gardner

envelope-1170117 Date: Fri, 16 Oct 1998 15:41:25 -0500 (CDT)
From: Bret McGuire,
Subject: Availability of information for newbies

The October issue of Linux Gazette featured a number of mail messages from individuals seeking basic information on how to start up and run a useful Linux system. A common complaint among these individuals was that basic information was not readily available, leading to the rather humorous suggestion that anyone who operates a usable Linux system was somehow « born with this information ». 🙂

This isn’t the case. There are a number of locations on the Web which offer a great deal of information about the Linux operating system. The best starting point is probably still the Linux Documentation Project…

(or at least that’s where I always go… I understand there are mirrors all over)

This site features HOWTO documents on nearly every topic you can imagine, along with current copies of the various Guides (everything from the Installation and Getting Started Guide thru The Linux Users’ Guide thru The Linux Network Administrators’ Guide, etc.). I suspect that this site either has the answer to your questions or has a link to someplace else that does. Definitely worth looking at…


envelope-1170117 Date: Mon, 19 Oct 1998 13:54:18 +0200
From: Jonas Erikson,
Subject: go go Network do or die!

My concern is that the free software alternative is going to its grave due to out-dated core bindings to the standard old UNIX core.

In comp.os.plan9 there are discussions like:

| Hasn’t the coolness of Linux worn off? If you want true excitement with | how cool an OS is and the fun of pioneering again, how about cloning | Plan 9?

Later in the same thread:

| We need a new Linus to start writing a Plan 9 kernel. GNU’s Hurd doesn’t | go as far, as a cloned Plan 9 would.

And in other comp.os.* … more…

I urge not to start all over again – but to modify that what is market recognized and stable. I think, unlike many other freeware enthusiasts, that there is a need for software infrastructure. A weak Linux would scatter a lot of good work and inspirations. For a new alternative it would take far too much time to reclaim the market confidence to freeware again.

I know that what I suggest, is far in terms of development in Linux and that Linux holds a legacy of strong infrastructure. But I don’t know if Linux, can tackle the infrastructure requirements building up after the first Internet pioneering..

Users in the MS-world see ACL:s and sharing (thus only the image) capabilities as a condition for selecting system. Also the development trend is that of distributing services, not only inside corporations but also trading with services distributed via CORBA or DCOM. Also other not so heavy standards are emerging as P3P, and do require a more distributive approach.

If we look at sharing with supposed « advanced » like CODA and AFS capabilities in file systems, that is just the beginning. And I think only a symptom, of lacking structures inside UNIX. (CODA _is_ advanced in may aspects not issued here)

New Internet standards make UNIX applications handle more, and more security features not compatible with the system. Building walls in systems by not providing infrastructure is not good for freeware, it’s not like Internet at all, not infrastructure.

The emerging operating system would be the most flexible in distributed security and compatible to old standards… And the idea to use a freeware alternative is to be ahead and in control.

Are we still?

So for the Linux Ext2fs kernel 2.3 ACL development: Do embed [domain][gid/uid][rights] for ACL-enteries!

Don’t forget that:
Linux is like windows to the whole OS-arena but on the « open/free » OS arena. And software is like infrastructure. – nothing but smaller differences are necessary to gain market. As roads they need to be compatible with most cars, but still improve. Now some infrastructures are gradually being implemented that set new standards to cars, it’s a bad idea not to take advantage of these standards.


envelope-1170117 Date: Sun, 25 Oct 1998 06:53:39 -0500
From: « Bill Parker »,
Subject: Compliments on a great issue

Great issue. It will take me some time to absorb even some of the information and good ideas presented here.

I particularly benefited from « Thoughts about Linux, » by Jurgen Defurne and « DialMon: The Linux/Windows diald Monitor, » by Mike Richardson. I have not had time to read the rest yet.

Thanks and best wishes,
Bill Parker

envelope-1170117 Date: Mon, 26 Oct 1998 16:16:37 -0800
From: Dave Stevens,
Subject: Rant

October 17, 1998, Smithers, B.C.
There is a lot of criticism of Linux that goes more or less like this – « Well if it was so hot it would cost something. Everything free is no good. »

It isn’t necessarily so and it just isn’t so.

Copyright is a social vehicle for compensating creators of intellectual property. The copyright expires eventually. Then the benefit of the intellectual work can, if it is of lasting value, be used more widely and, in principle, at least, in perpetuity. This process and model are very familiar in other fields of intellectual endeavor but are new to computer programming. If we look at the body of english literature that fills our libraries and bookshelves, there is certainly no direct correspondence between copyright and quality. All of Shakespeare, to take a favorite of mine, is long out of copyright and is some of the best literature ever created. Or Mozart, or Dickens. You make the list.

The whole consumer software trip is too new for the copyright process and terms to have worked themselves out full term. The concept of computer software as intellectual work, potentially of a high calibre, is just too new for social understanding to be widespread. The idea that intellectual work might be contributed and protected in such a way as to enlarge the realm of the possible in the computer part of the public sphere certainly has a way to go in being got used to.

Does this mean that some of the criticism offered in superficial? To put it kindly, yes. The open source software community is collaboratively creating a standard for computer software below which any commercial vendor will fall at its peril. If you can have all this for free will you actually pay to get an inferior product? Maybe by accident. But not twice. The growth of acceptance of Linux is a step in the spread of the idea of a body of public domain imperative literature. Its quality is no more to be judged by its price than a Chopin waltz.

I would be happy to discuss any of these ideas with coherent correspondents, and invite both comment and criticism.

Dave Stevens

Published in Linux Gazette Issue 34, November 1998

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